• Resistance Temperature Detectors

    Resistance temperature detectors, popularly known as RTDs, are one of the conventional types of temperature sensors. Their working is based upon the “physical principle of the positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance of metals”1 which means that as the temperature … Continue reading

  • Pyrometers

    Pyrometers are also popularly known as Radiation thermometers. Pyro and thermo are basically words of Greek origin where the former means fire and the latter signifies hot. Hence, Pyrometers or Radiation thermometers are referred to as the devices employed to … Continue reading

  • Emissivity

    The infrared heat energy of an object doesn’t appear visible to human eye. However, this infrared energy can be transferred in basically three forms of energy as shown in the figure. They are: Reflected Transmitted Emitted Amongst these three types … Continue reading

  • Velocity Meters

    Velocity type flowmeters generally tend to follow a linear relationship with respect to the volume flow rate. Unlike differential pressure type flowmeters, there is no square-root relationship in these instruments. Hence, their rangeability is much better as compared to other … Continue reading

  • Positive Displacement Flowmeters

    Positive displacement (PD) meters are the types of flowmeters which are suitable for measurement of viscous liquid flows. These are also considered ideal for applications which require use of a simple mechanical meter system. In general, a positive displacement flowmeter … Continue reading

  • Open Channel Flowmeters

    Any conduit or channel in which the fluid or liquid is flowing with a free surface open to the atmosphere is referred to as an “open channel”. For instance, tunnels, nonpressurized sewers, partially filled pipes, canals, streams, and rivers, all … Continue reading

  • Mass Flowmeters

    Mass flowmeters are the types of flowmeters which are mainly employed in mass-related processes such as chemical reactions, heat transfer, etc. In all these processes, accurate measurement of flow is the prerequisite. There are numerous types of mass flowmeters available … Continue reading

  • Level Measurement

    Level sensors are the devices which are used to detect the level of flowing substances such as liquids, slurries, granular materials, and powders etc. Due to gravity, all these substances flow to form a basic level in their physical boundaries. … Continue reading

  • Orifice Plate

    Orifice plate is one of the most popular differential pressure type liquid flowmeter generally employed for detection (or measurement) of flow. It is one of the simplest and most cost-effective ways to restrict flow. Orifices are simply a flat piece … Continue reading